Sacraments are holy signs and seals of the covenant of grace, immediately instituted by God, to
represent Christ and His benefits; and to confirm our interest in Him; as also, to put a visible
difference between those that belong unto the Church, and the rest of the world; and solemnly to engage
them to the service of God in Christ, according to His Word.
There is in every sacrament a spiritual relation, or sacramental union, between the sign and the thing
signified: whence it comes to pass, that the names and effects of the one are attributed to the other.
The grace which is exhibited in or by the sacraments rightly used, is not conferred by any power in
them; neither doth the efficacy of a sacrament depend upon the piety or intention of him that doth
administer it: but upon the work of the Spirit, and the word of institution, which contains, together with
a precept authorizing the use thereof, a promise of benefit to worthy receivers.
There are only two sacraments ordained by Christ our Lord in the Gospel; that is to say, Baptism and the
Supper of the Lord: neither of which may be dispensed by any but by a minister of the Word lawfully
The sacraments of the Old Testament, in regard to the spiritual things thereby signified and exhibited,
were, for substance, the same with those of the New.