A lawful oath is a part of religious worship, wherein, upon just occasion, the person swearing solemnly
calleth God to witness what he asserteth, or promiseth, and to judge him according to the truth or
falsehood of what he sweareth.
The name of God only is that by which men ought to swear; and therein it is to be used with all holy
fear and reverence. Therefore, to swear vainly or rashly, by that glorious and dreadful Name; or, to swear
at all by any other thing, is sinful, and to be abhorred. Yet, as in matters of weight and moment, an oath
is warranted by the Word of God, under the New Testament, as well as under the Old; so a lawful oath,
being imposed by lawful authority, in such matters ought to be taken.
Whosoever taketh an oath ought duly to consider the weightiness of so solemn an act; and therein to
avouch nothing, but what he is fully persuaded is the truth. Neither may any man bind himself by oath to
anything but what is good and just, and what he believeth so to be, and what he is able and resolved to
perform. Yet is it a sin to refuse an oath touching anything that is good and just, being imposed by
An oath is to be taken in the plain and common sense of the words, without equivocation, or mental
reservation. It cannot oblige to sin: but in anything not sinful, being taken, it binds to performance,
although to a man’s own hurt. Not is it to be violated, although made to heretics, or infidels.
A vow is of the like nature with a promissory oath, and ought to be made with the like religious care,
and to be performed with the like faithfulness.
It is not to be made to any creature, but to God alone: and that it may be accepted, it is to be made
voluntarily, out of faith, and conscience of duty, in way of thankfulness for mercy received, or for the
obtaining of what we want; whereby we more strictly bind ourselves to necessary duties; or to other
things, so far and so long as they may fitly conduce thereunto.
No man may vow to do anything forbidden in the Word of God, or what would hinder any duty therein
commanded, or which is not in his own power, and for the performance whereof he hath no promise of ability
from God. In which respects, Popish monastical vows of perpetual single life, professed poverty, and
regular obedience, are so far from being degrees of higher perfection, that they are superstitious and
sinful snares, in which no Christian may entangle himself.